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Does Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid ameliorate the negative effect of drought on wheat by regulating osmotic adjustment through solutes accumulation عبير حمدي الحكيم

H. S. Aldesuquy, S. A. Abo- Hamed, M. A. Abbas and A. H. Elhakem, J. of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, In Press 2013

 Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM), grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M) and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum  aestivum L.) cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and  resistant, Sakha 93). Osmotic pressure, some osmolytes concentration and grain yield were determined. Water stress caused an increase in osmotic pressure, proline, total soluble nitrogen, total soluble sugars, organic acids, ions (Na , K ,Ca 2, Mg 2 and Cl-) content as well as Na/K ratio in flag leaves of both wheat cultivars. The resistant variety had higher values of osmotic pressure, proline, organic acids and  ions content than the sensitive one.

    The applied chemicals mitigated the effect of water stress on the used wheat cultivars. The effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine salicylic acid treatment. The applied chemicals increased the osmotic pressure, the osmolytes concentrations as well as the grain yield.   

     The osmotic pressure appeared to depend on proline, TSN, TSS, organic acids and the ions content. The economic yield (grain yield) was positively correlated with proline, keto-acids and osmotic pressure but negatively correlated with TSN, TSS and citric acid.

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GLYCINE BETAINE AND SALICYLIC ACID INDUCED MODIFICATION IN WATER RELATION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF DROUGHTED WHEAT PLANTS عبير حمدي الحكيم

Aldesuquy H. S.*, S. A. Abo- Hamed , M. A. Abass  and  A. H. Elhakem, 2013 

Summary: A study of parameters associated with adjustments in internal water balance, namely: diurnal variation in transpiration rate, stomatal opening area, relative water content, water use efficiency, hormonal level of wheat flag leaves in relation to grain yield is presented. Drought induced marked decreases in diurnal and mean daily values of transpiration rate, stomatal pore areas (on upper and lower sides), relative water content, water use efficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), cytokinins (CKs) and grain yield but led to a significant increase in the abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in flag leaves of the wheat cultivars. Grain presoaking in salicylic acid or foliar application with glycine betaine alleviated the stress by keeping water within leaves and consequently recover the turgidity of stressed plants by restricting the transpiration rate, stomatal closure, decreasing the ABA level and enhancing the growth promoters particularly (IAA, GA3 & CKs) particularly with the sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine salicylic acid treatment. The grain yield appeared to be positively correlated with IAA, GA3, CK, RWC, WUEG and WUEB but negatively correlated with ABA, SWD, transpiration rate and stomatal areas on both wheat cultivars.

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Physiological responses of herbicide-treated wheat to selected nitrogen sources عبير حمدي الحكيم

Physiological responses of herbicide-treated wheat to selected nitrogen sources NematAlla M.M., Abbas M.A. and El-Hakeem A.H., (2001), Egypt. J. Bot

   Contents of pigments, soluble sugars and nitrogenous fractions of wheat seedlings were studied following treatments with butachlor or isoproturon either alone or combined with the nitrogen sources urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate. Both herbicides caused a significant decrease in carotenoids content of wheat shoot. The nitrogen sources rendered the herbicide effects to become non-significant. Chlorophyll a and b were significantly reduced by both herbicides while nitrogen sources slightly reduced the herbicide effects. Likely, both herbicides provoked an inhibiton on the activity of δ- aminolevulinate dehydretase (ALA-D,EC 4.2.1.24), the magnitude of reduction was greater with isoproturon.

    The nitrogen sources raised the activity of ALA-D over that detected in samples. In the same time, both herbicides significantly reduced the contents of total soluble sugars in shoots and roots; the effect was more evident with isoproturon, through nitrogen sources slightly increased the contents of sugars, potassium nitrate was the only one that equilibrated rhe effect of both herbicides. Meanwhile ammonia-N contents in shoots and roots were increased but only potassium nitrate counterbalanced these increases. Isoproturon and particularly butachlor significantly decreased total soluble nitrogen and total nitrogen in shoots and roots. Addition of nitrogen sources could overcome the reductive effects of both herbicides mostly by induced increase in these compounds. These findings indicate that nitrogen sources may conduce wheat to develop its physiological response for increasing tolerance to herbicides.

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Interaction of exogenous nitrogen sources on wheat tolerance toherbicides. Responses of defense mechanism عبير حمدي الحكيم
Interaction of exogenous nitrogen sources on wheat tolerance toherbicides. Responses of defense mechanism  NematAlla M.M., Abbas M.A. and El-Hakeem A.H, (2000)  Proc. Int. Conf. Biol. Sci. Tanta, Egypt.

Butachlor or isoproturon significantly decreased shoot height, fresh and dry weights of 7-d old wheat seedlings during a period of 15-d following treatments; isoproturon had the greatest effect. The preasence of urea, potassium nitrate ammonium sulfate generally retracted the herbicide effects the effect of butachlor on shoot height as overcome by all nitrogen sources. These additives do no longer changed isoproturon action. No significant changes in fresh weight were also observed by Butachlor with any of nitrogen sources during the first 10 days, but the isoproturon effect become insignificant with urea or potassium nitrate. Shoot dry weight appeared comparable to controls when urea or ammonium sulfate was present with butachlor as well as potassium nitrate or ammonium sulfate with isoproturon.

      Butachlor significantly increased anthocyanin and enhanced the activates of PAL and TAL. On the contrary isoproturon provoked significant decreased in these levels. Nitrogen sources appeared to regulate these effects and mostly approximated the control. Nevertheless anthocyanin remained significantly high with   butachlor but insignificant with isoproturon.

    Butachlor increased PAL still significantly only during the first or the last interval with urea or potassium nitrate respectively. Nitrogen sources overcome isoproturon effect completely. Similarly urea could not equilibrate the effects of both herbicides on TAL. These finding revels the occurrence of stress status in wheat induced by both herbicides;  Nitrogen sources rendered them thoroughly ineffective....

Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress عبير حمدي الحكيم
Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress  Heshmat. S. Aldesuquy, Samy. A. Abo- Hamed, Mohmed. A. Abbas, Abeer  H. Elhakem and Saeed. S. Alsokari, (2012) J. of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, Vol. 8 No. 2 , pp. 69-86 .

 A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM), grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M) and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93). Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices) and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids) in both wheat cultivars.

    The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one) and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length,...

Role of glycine betaine and salicylic acid in improving growth عبير حمدي الحكيم
Role of Glycine  Betaine And Salicylic Acid In Improving GrowthVigourand Physiological Aspects of Droughted Wheat Cultivars

Heshmat. S. Aldesuquy, Samy. A. Abo- Hamed, Mohmed. A. Abbas and Abeer. H. Elhakem, (2012)

.J. of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 149-171

     A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM), grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M) and their interaction on two droughted wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93). In general,  water stress caused noticeable increases in root length, number of adventitious roots, soluble sugars and nitrogen but a massive reduction in fresh and dry masses of root, growth vigor of shoot, leaf area,  pigments content, polysaccharides, protein-N and total nitrogen in both wheat cultivars. Vice versa, exogenous application of GB, SA or their interaction could counteract the adverse effects of drought by improvement of growth vigor of root and shoot, leaf area, retention of pigments content, increasing the concentration of organic solutes (soluble sugars and soluble nitrogen) as osmoprotectants, keeping out the polysaccharides concentration and/or stabilization of essential proteins in both wheat cultivars.

Finally, we can conclude that GB, SA or their interaction could improve the drought tolerance of both two wheat cultivars particularly the sensitive ones.

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خصائص الحوار القرآني مع أهل الكتاب الدكتور مشرف بن أحمد الزهراني > >

 

يعد الحوار منذ القدم أداة التقارب بين المتباعدين وهو في الوقت نفسه الوسيلة الحضارية التي تتناسب مع طبيعة الإنسان باعتباره كائناً اجتماعيا .

وفي إطار الحفز الثقافي المعاصر نحو التواصل الحضاري يبرز الدور الإسلامي الرائد والخالد في هذا الميدان , وتطبيقاً لهذا الدور أختار البحث الحوار القرآني مع أهل الكتاب ليدرس خصائصه المميزة عسى أن يكون نواةً لتحديد خصائص الحوار الناجح المنتج .

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تحديات الأمن الفكري في صدر الإسلام ومدى الإفادة منها في تجربتنا الحضارية الدكتور مشرف بن أحمد الزهراني > >

 

لما كانت حلقات التاريخ تتواصل، وكانت الأمم في حياتها كالإنسان في عمره؛ يختزن في هرمه كثيرا من تجارب طفولته وشبابه، فقد وجدنا هذه القاعدة تنطبق على التحديات الفكرية  التي تواجه أمتنا في واقعها المعاصر، فالفكرة الأولى للانحراف تأخذ شكلاً مبدئياً ثم تتبلور وتتطور، وتتعدد أشكالها على مر الزمان،(فإن الفكر الإنساني موصول الحلقات، لا تنفصل حلقة من حلقاتها عن تاليتها، والجماعات الإنسانية لا تعيش بأفكار معزولة عما سبقها من الأفكار وإنما يؤثر السابق في اللاحق ويتأثر اللاحق بالسابق).

ومن هنا كان النظر لازماً في أصول هذا الفكر المنحرف الذي يتحدى أمتنا في تجربتها الحضارية المعاصرة، من حيث روافده وطبيعته، ومداخله وموقف أولي العلم والأمر منه في صدر الإسلام، حتى يستبين لنا سبيل واضح نقتفيه في هذه التجربة المعاصرة التي تخوضها أمتنا الإسلامية نحو أمن فكري إسلامي . ولذلك وقع الاختيار على موضوع (تحديات الأمن الفكري في صدر الإسلام ومدى الإفادة منها في تجربتنا الحضارية)، إذلم يعد خافياً على أحد ما تواجهه الأمة الإسلامية من تحديات فكرية تمس بالدرجة الأولى أمرين هما أخطر ما تعتز به: عقيدتها وأمنها، فعلى مدار  التاريخ كان العدو المتربص بها يسعى إلى زعزعة الأمن العقدي بالقوة نفسها التي يسعى بها إلى زعزعة الأمن العسكري والاقتصادي والاجتماعي.

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معالم الوسطية في الدراسات الحضارية الإسلامية المعاصرة الدكتور مشرف بن أحمد الزهراني > >

فكرة هذا البحث هي تأصيل مقاييس البحث التاريخي والحضاري بصياغةٍ إسلاميةٍ، ولذا اختار قيمة الوسطية مقياساً تقويمياً لمناهج البحث التاريخي والحضاري الإسلامية ، فحدد أولاً مصطلح الوسطية ، ثم مصطلح البحث الحضاري وبين قيمها ومعالمها ثم سعى في تطبيق هذا المقياس الوسطي على المناهج والدراسات الحضارية الإسلامية قديماً وحديثاً .

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منهج القرآن الكريم في توجيه الصحابة الدكتور مشرف بن أحمد الزهراني > >

تحت عنوان ( منهج القرآن الكريم في توجيه الصحابة ) رغبت أن أجمع الخير من أطرافه، فالقرآن الكريم - إلى جانب أنه كتاب هداية ونور – نبع دائم الفيض، لا ينضب ولا يغيض، والصحابة غرة جبين الأمة، لذا حرصت على معرفة خصوصية الصحابة رضوان الله تعالى عليهم، من خلال التعرف على معالم المنهج القرآني في توجيههم، وبعد الوقوف على ثمار تلك التربية عليهم أولاً ثم على من يتأسى بهم. وأعتقد أن المباحث هنا قد وفّت بها إلى حد كبير.

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